Retrieved 29 January Cheung, Tony; Ho, Lauren 19 January The area is a partially submerged, dissected upland terrain that rises abruptly to heights above 2, feet metres ; its backbone is made up of a series of ridges, running northeast to southwest, that tie in closely with the structural trend in South China. Transport and Housing Bureau. You may find it helpful to search within the site to see how similar or related subjects are covered.
The territory is divided into 18 districts. A seat District Council , of which are directly elected, represents each district and advises the government on local issues such as public-facility provisioning, community-programme maintenance, cultural promotion, and environmental policy. According to Basic Law Articles 45 and 68, the goal is universal suffrage for the election of the Chief Executive and all members of the Legislative Council.
Ethnic minorities except those of European ancestry have marginal representation in government, and often experience discrimination in housing, education, and employment. Although they live and work in Hong Kong, these workers are not treated as ordinary residents and are ineligible for the right of abode. The Joint Declaration guarantees the Basic Law for 50 years after the transfer of sovereignty. Hong Kong's political and judicial systems may be reintegrated with China's at that time, or the territory may continue to be administered separately.
Undeveloped terrain is hilly to mountainous, with very little flat land, and consists mostly of grassland, woodland, shrubland, or farmland. Hong Kong has a humid subtropical climate Köppen Cwa , characteristic of southern China. Summer is hot and humid, with occasional showers and thunderstorms and warm air from the southwest.
Typhoons occur most often then, sometimes resulting in floods or landslides. Winters are mild and usually sunny at the beginning, becoming cloudy towards February; an occasional cold front brings strong, cooling winds from the north.
The most temperate seasons are spring which can be changeable and autumn, which is generally sunny and dry. Hong Kong averages 1, hours of sunshine per year;  the highest and lowest recorded temperatures at the Hong Kong Observatory are Demand for new construction has contributed to frequent demolition of older buildings, freeing space for modern high-rises.
Older government buildings are examples of colonial architecture. The Flagstaff House , the former residence of the commanding British military officer, is the oldest Western-style building in Hong Kong. Tong lau , mixed-use tenement buildings constructed during the colonial era, blended southern Chinese architectural styles with European influences.
These were especially prolific during the immediate post-war period, when many were rapidly built to house large numbers of Chinese migrants. Mass-produced public-housing estates , built since the s, are mainly constructed in modernist style. The predominant language is Cantonese , a variety of Chinese originating in Guangdong. It is spoken by Among the religious population, the traditional " three teachings " of China Buddhism , Confucianism , and Taoism have the most adherents 20 percent and are followed by Christianity 12 percent and Islam four percent.
Of residents aged 15 and older, Much of the elderly population were not formally educated due to war and poverty. Life expectancy in Hong Kong was Income inequality has risen since the transfer of sovereignty, as the region's ageing population has gradually added to the number of nonworking people.
Hong Kong has a capitalist mixed service economy , characterised by low taxation , minimal government market intervention, and an established international financial market. Hong Kong is the seventh largest trading entity in both exports and imports , trading more goods in value than its gross domestic product. Products from mainland China alone account for about 40 per cent of that traffic. The territory has little arable land and few natural resources, so it imports most of its food and raw materials.
Imports account for more than 90 per cent of Hong Kong's food supply, including nearly all the meat and rice available there. While the territory boasted one of the largest manufacturing economies in Asia during the latter half of the colonial era, Hong Kong's economy is now dominated by the services sector.
Services alone constitute Economic and infrastructure integration with China has increased significantly from the start of market liberalisation in the mainland in Since resumption of cross-boundary train service in , many rail and road links have been improved and constructed, facilitating trade between the regions.
Each jurisdiction pledged to remove remaining obstacles to trade and cross-boundary investments. Mainland firms now represent over half of the Hang Seng Index value, up from 5 per cent in As the mainland liberalised its economy, Hong Kong's shipping industry faced severe competition from other Chinese ports. While 50 per cent of China's trade goods were routed through Hong Kong in , that figure dropped to about 13 per cent by Investors have open access to mainland Chinese markets through direct links with the Shanghai and Shenzhen stock exchanges.
The territory was the first market outside of mainland China for renminbi-denominated bonds and remains one of the largest hubs for offshore renminbi trading. The government traditionally adopted a passive role in the economy.
Colonial governments had little by way of industrial policy and implemented almost no trade controls. Under the doctrine of " positive non-interventionism ", post-war administrations deliberately avoided directly allocating productive resources.
Active intervention was thought to be detrimental to economic growth. Post-handover administrations continued and expanded on these programmes, including export credit guarantees, a compulsory pension scheme , a minimum wage, anti-discrimination laws , and a state mortgage backer. It is also the most popular city for tourists, receiving over 70 per cent more visitors than its closest competitor, Macau. Hong Kong has a highly developed and sophisticated transport network.
The Mass Transit Railway MTR is an extensive passenger railway network, connecting 93 metro stations throughout the territory. While public transport systems handle the majority of passenger traffic, there are over , private vehicles licensed in Hong Kong. Hong Kong International Airport is the primary airport for the territory.
The Star Ferry operates two lines across Victoria Harbour for its 53, daily passengers. Smaller kai-to boats serve the most remote coastal settlements. The Peak Tram , the first public transport system in Hong Kong, has provided vertical rail transport between Central and Victoria Peak since Hong Kong imports almost all its generated electricity and fuel.
With few natural lakes and rivers, a high population density, inaccessible groundwater sources, and extremely seasonal rainfall, the territory does not have a reliable source of fresh water. Broadband Internet access is widely available, with Connections over fibre-optic infrastructure are increasingly prevalent,  contributing to the high regional average connection speed of Hong Kong is often characterised as a hybrid of East and West.
Traditional Chinese values emphasising family and education are blended with progressive Western ideals, including economic liberty and the rule of law. The territory diverged from the mainland due to the long period of colonial administration and a differing pace of economic, social, and cultural development. Mainstream culture is derived from immigrants originating from various parts of China.
This was influenced by British-style education, a separate political system, and the territory's rapid development during the late 20th century. Traditional Chinese family values are prevalent among the population. These include preference for sons , family honor , and filial piety.
Large-scale construction projects often hire consultants to ensure proper building positioning and layouts. The degree of adherence to feng shui is believed to determine the success of a business. Food in Hong Kong is primarily based on Cantonese cuisine , despite the territory's sustained exposure to foreign influences and many residents with varied origins. Rice is the primary staple food and is usually served plain with other dishes. Poultry and seafood are commonly sold live at wet markets and ingredients are used as quickly as possible.
Large groups of family and friends gather to yum cha , the social tradition of gathering to dine at a teahouse or restaurant. Characteristic dishes include congee , cha siu bao , siu yuk , egg tarts , and mango pudding. Local interpretations of Western food are served at fast, casual restaurants called cha chaan teng. Common menu items at these restaurants include macaroni in soup, deep-fried French toast, and Hong Kong-style milk tea.
Hong Kong developed into a major filmmaking hub in the late s, as a wave of Shanghai filmmakers migrated to the territory. These movie veterans helped rebuild the colony's entertainment industry through the next decade.
Locally made gangster movies, romantic dramas, and supernatural fantasies became hugely popular. Nevertheless, the city's film industry roots in martial arts can often be observed through the roles of the most prolific Hong Kong actors. At the height of the local movie industry in the early s, over films were produced each year.
Since then, industry momentum shifted towards mainland China. The annual number of films produced has declined significantly, to around 60 in Cantopop is the genre of Cantonese popular music that emerged in Hong Kong during the s. This musical style evolved from Shanghai-style shidaiqu , influenced by Cantonese opera and Western pop as well.
Throughout the s, these movies and shows were exported outside of the territory and exposed Cantopop to a global audience. More recent contemporary artists such as Eason Chan , Joey Yung , and Twins continue to be popular within and outside the territory.
Western classical music has historically had a strong presence in Hong Kong, and remains a large part of local musical education. The Hong Kong Chinese Orchestra , composed solely of classical Chinese instrumentation , is the leading Chinese ensemble counterpart and plays a large role in promoting traditional music in the local community.
Despite its small area, the territory is home to a wide range of sports and recreational facilities. The city has hosted a number of major sporting events, including the East Asian Games , the Summer Olympics equestrian events , and the Premier League Asia Trophy. Hong Kong represents itself separately from mainland China with its own regional sports teams in international competitions.
Lee Lai-shan won the territory's first and only Olympic gold medal in the Atlanta Games. No longer part of the Commonwealth of Nations , the city's last appearance at the Commonwealth Games was in Dragon boat races originated as a religious ceremony performed during the annual Tuen Ng Festival. The race was revived as a modern sport as part of the Tourism Board 's efforts to promote Hong Kong's image abroad.
The first modern competition was organised in , and overseas teams began competing in the first international race in The Hong Kong Jockey Club holds a statutory monopoly on gambling and is the largest taxpayer in the territory.
Local publications are often overt in their political affiliations, showing either pro-Beijing or pro-democracy sympathies. The central government itself maintains a print media presence in the territory through the state-owned Ta Kung Pao and Wen Wei Po.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the special administrative region of China. For other uses, see Hong Kong disambiguation. For other uses, see HK disambiguation. Special administrative region of China. Show map of China. Chinese [a] English [b]. History of Hong Kong and History of China. Architecture of Hong Kong. List of tallest buildings in Hong Kong.
Demographics of Hong Kong and Hong Kong people. Transport in Hong Kong. Culture of Hong Kong. Cinema of Hong Kong. Music of Hong Kong. Leslie Cheung left is considered one of the pioneering artists of the Cantopop genre. Andy Lau right , as a member of the Four Heavenly Kings , has been a perennial icon in Hong Kong music and film for the past several decades. Sport in Hong Kong. Media of Hong Kong.
Hong Kong portal China portal. Residents predominantly speak Cantonese , the de facto regional standard. A person without Chinese nationality who has entered Hong Kong with a valid travel document, has ordinarily resided there for a continuous period not less than seven years, and is permanently domiciled in the territory would be legally recognized as a Hongkonger.
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Macau, the Imaginary City: Culture and Society, to the Present. Preston, Peter Wallace; Haacke, Jürgen This trend is clearly observable from the alignment of Lantau Island and the Tolo Channel. From Mount Tai Mo—at 3, feet metres the highest peak in the territory—the series of ridges extends southwestward to Lantau Island , where the terrain rises to 3, feet metres on Lantau Peak and 2, feet metres on Sunset Peak.
Victoria Hong Kong Harbour is well protected by mountains on Hong Kong Island that include Victoria Peak in the west, which rises to 1, feet metres , and Mount Parker in the east, which reaches a height of about 1, feet metres. Lowlands of the Hong Kong region, including floodplains, river valleys, and reclaimed land, occupy less than one-fifth of the land.
The urban area that spans the two sides of the harbour, with ongoing reclamation, takes up only about one-tenth of the level area. Hong Kong lacks a river system of any scope, the only exception being in the north where the Sham Chun Shenzhen River, which forms the boundary between Guangdong and Hong Kong, flows into Deep Bay after collecting a number of small tributaries. Most of the streams are small, and they generally run perpendicular to the northeast-southwest trend of the terrain.
The construction of reservoirs and their catchment systems has reduced the amount of fresh water available downstream. An exception is the alluvial soils, which are found mainly in the Deep Bay area, where the sediment-laden waters of the Pearl River estuary meet saline waters at high tide and slow down to deposit their sediments to form mudflats.
Paddy rice farming and, more recently, intensive vegetable cultivation have modified the alluvial soils. Elsewhere, hill soils, classified as red-yellow podzolic and krasnozem, abound. Under forest, these hill soils have a well-developed profile, with rich topsoil, but, when they are exposed, as is mostly the case, they tend to be thin and lacking in nutrients. Under tropical conditions, sheet and gully erosion is extensive and drastic.
Hong Kong lies at the northern fringe of the tropical zone. Its monsoonal wet-dry seasonal changes are well marked, however, with hot, humid summers and cool, dry winters. The climate is largely controlled by the atmospheric pressure systems over the adjacent great Asian landmass and ocean surface.
Thus, relatively dry monsoonal winds blow from the northeast in winter as a result of the cooling of the landmass and the development of a large thermal anticyclone over Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. Warm, wet southeasterly winds develop in summer when the North Pacific Ocean heats up more slowly through solar radiation and becomes a high-pressure area. Frost occasionally occurs on hilltops in winter. The average annual rainfall amounts to about 88 inches 2, mm , more than half of which falls during the summer months of June, July, and August; only about 10 percent falls from November to March.
Tropical cyclones , or typhoons, generally occur between June and October, and, of the 20 to 30 typhoons formed over the western North Pacific and South China Sea each year, an average of five or six may affect Hong Kong. The torrential downpours and strong winds that frequently accompany the typhoons sometimes devastate life and property in Hong Kong and in adjacent areas of Guangdong.
Hong Kong is noted for the lushness and great diversity of its plant life. The transitional climate between humid subtropical and warm temperate maritime excludes the most sensitive humid tropical genera due to the cool, dry winter conditions, but many tropical as well as temperate-zone families are represented.
Most of the land, except for the heavily eroded badlands , is under tropical herbaceous growth, including mangrove and other swamp cover. The most common forest genus today is Pinus , represented by native South China red pines and by slash pines, introduced from Australia. These woods consist essentially of native forest trees, some of which are of potential value to the villagers.
Among the few arboreal mammals are two species of nonnative monkeys that flourish in forests of the New Territories, the rhesus macaque and the long-tailed macaque. Tigers are reputed to have once roamed the area, but they are no longer in evidence. The largest remaining carnivores are rare and include the South China red fox , the Chinese leopard cat , the seven-banded civet , and the masked palm civet. Some rat and mouse species typically inhabit scrubland and grassland areas.
Birdlife is abundant, and there are numerous species of snakes , lizards , and frogs. The overwhelming majority of the population is Chinese by place of origin, the non-Chinese making up only a tiny fraction of the total. An overwhelming majority of the Chinese are from Guangdong province and from Hong Kong itself, with smaller numbers coming from other parts of China.
Chinese and English are both official languages. Chinese, especially Cantonese in the spoken form, is the common language, however, and is almost universally understood. A variety of dialects and other languages are used among the ethnic minorities.
Groups from other parts of China are also likely to use their own native dialects, and, similarly, the non-Chinese are likely to use their own native languages among themselves. Those that do practice a wide variety of beliefs. Among the Chinese, followers of Buddhism and Daoism far outnumber other groups; a large number also follow Confucianist beliefs. The numerous Buddhist and Daoist temples and monasteries, some centuries old, play an important role in the daily life of the average Chinese.
Although each temple is generally dedicated to one or two deities, it is not unusual to find images of a number of other gods or goddesses inside. For a fishing and trading port, the most significant deities are those associated with the ocean and the weather, such as Dian Hau, the goddess of heaven and protector of seafarers, who is honoured by temples at virtually every fishing harbour. Other leading deities include Guanyin Avalokitesvara , the Buddhist bodhisattva of mercy; Hong Shing, god of the South Seas and a weather prophet; and Wong Daisin, a Daoist saint and deity.
A small proportion of the people are Christians, with somewhat more Protestants than Roman Catholics; there are dozens of Protestant denominations and sects such as Baptist, Lutheran, Anglican, and Methodist.
There are also small numbers of Muslims, Hindus, Sikhs, and Jews. The predominantly urban settlements of Hong Kong are typically distributed linearly, following the irregular coastline and transportation routes. The principal urban areas are established on Hong Kong Island and the Kowloon Peninsula, where roughly half of the total population lives. There, most of the population is concentrated around Victoria Harbour, living on the limited flatland that is being continuously extended by reclamation.
Many major streets, especially those on the northern shore of Hong Kong Island, as well as the entire industrial district of Kwun Tong and much of the southern tip of the Kowloon Peninsula, have been built on reclaimed land. In the New Territories north of the Kowloon hills, rural settlements vary from hamlets to small towns. Most of the villages, compactly built and often walled, follow the alignment of the river systems in the low-lying but fertile alluvial floodplains or the major route corridors.
Villages of the Cantonese people are located mainly in the flat alluvial regions, whereas villages of the Hakka people usually are found in narrow valleys or on foothills.
The feng-shui grove and pond are characteristic of both the Cantonese and Hakka villages: A number of new towns have sprung up in the New Territories as a result of the tremendous increase in population there. Among these are Tsuen Wan, Tuen Mun Castle Peak before , and Sha Tin, which were established in the s and designed to have populations of between about , and , each. Others, including Tai Po, Fanling, Yuen Long, and, more recently, Tseung Kwon O Junk Bay , were designated as new towns in the s, with population goals ranging from about , to , Thus, the New Territories, where only one-eighth of the population resided in , accounted for more than half of the total by ; the bulk of the New Territories population is now concentrated in the new towns.
True to its original character as a fishing port, Hong Kong has a sizable, though rapidly dwindling, marine settlement. They inhabit fishing towns, such as Aberdeen, Shau Kei Wan, and Cheung Chau, and typhoon shelters in the harbour areas. With the advance of urbanization and the decline of fishing activity, increasing numbers of them are working ashore. Since the s the average annual rate of growth has fluctuated between about 2 and 4 percent, the variations based in some degree on the sporadic flow of immigrants from China.
Immigration has been a chief cause of population increase, but it was slowed through changes in immigration policy in and , and emigration rose from the late s. Birth rates have steadily declined since the late s, the rate of natural increase falling below 1 percent by the s.
Life expectancy , however, has been showing a gradual increase. Since the s, the proportion of the population under 15 has decreased rapidly, while older age groups have shown a marked increase.
With its limited natural resources, Hong Kong depends on imports for virtually all of its requirements, including raw materials, food and other consumer goods, capital goods, and fuel. Under its unique status as an international free port , entrepôt trade, mainly with China, flourished until , when a United Nations embargo on trade with China and North Korea drastically curtailed it.
This situation, combined with the need to export and with the availability of cheap labour, led to the establishment of competitive light industries and a transformation of the economy in the early s. The market economy and the laissez-faire policy of the British colonial government provided flexibility for further industrialization and the incentive and freedom, from the late s, to attract foreign investment and financial transactions.
In succeeding years, with China adopting a more open foreign policy , entrepôt trade rapidly revived, while Hong Kong—China trade surged.
The tertiary services sector of the economy now makes up some four-fifths of the gross domestic product GDP. Since the s about one-third of the agricultural land has been lost to other uses. The growing season is year-round, however, and several crops per year are possible.
Paddy rice cultivation once dominated agricultural land use, but it has practically disappeared, having been surpassed by vegetable and pond fish farming. Other minor uses include the production of fruits, flowers, and crops such as sweet potatoes , taro , yams , and sugarcane. There also is some livestock farming , mainly of chickens and pigs. Apart from pond fish, a marine fish culture has shown signs of development, notably in the eastern New Territories. Hong Kong is practically devoid of any significant mineral resources.
The small-scale mining of feldspar , feldspar sand, and kaolin clay ceased by Some stone is quarried for use in construction. Hong Kong is similarly poorly endowed in other natural resources: Indeed, even water has been in serious short supply as a consequence of the limited areal extent, the steep terrain, and the lack of catchment areas. In spite of the many reservoirs, which were built mostly before World War II , and several giant projects, such as the water desalinization plant at Castle Peak and the Plover Cove and the High Island reservoirs, which are enclosed sea areas, the bulk of water consumed is piped in from Guangdong province.
Hong Kong must import all of the fossil fuel it consumes. It produces most of its electric-power needs at thermal generating plants.
The rest of its power requirements are imported from Guangdong province. The rapid development of manufacturing in the s was made possible by immigrant Chinese industrialists, mainly from Shanghai , who brought with them technology and capital.
Foreign investments soon began to flow in to tap the huge supply of cheap labour and relatively cheap raw materials available in the surrounding region. Most industry has been confined to the urban areas, especially in the densely populated districts of Kowloon. With the development of industrial and other new towns, manufacturing began to disperse into Kwun Tong, Tsuen Wan, Tuen Mun, and other areas. In the Hong Kong Industrial Estates Corporation was established to develop and manage industrial estates that would accommodate high-technology industries, first on reclaimed land in Tai Po and later in Yuen Long.
Manufacturing, once the most important sector of the Hong Kong economy, has been overshadowed by the vast service sector; manufacturing now constitutes only a tiny fraction of the gross domestic product and employs only a slightly higher proportion of the labour force. Textile and clothing production is the leading manufacturing activity and contributes about one-third of the value of domestic exports. The electronics industry is the second largest export earner.
There are some heavy industries such as shipbuilding and repair and aircraft engineering. Steel rolling, production of machine parts and plastics, and cement manufacturing serve local needs.
Since Hong Kong has emerged as one of the major financial centres of the Asia-Pacific region, despite the fact that it is without the services of a central bank.
The geography of Hong Kong primarily consists of three main territories: Hong Kong Island, Kowloon Peninsula, and the New Territories. The name "Hong Kong", literally meaning "fragrant harbour," is derived from the area around present-day Aberdeen on Hong Kong Island, where fragrant wood products and incense were once traded. Hong Kong is a dependant territory of China. The population of Hong Kong is 7,, () and the nation has a density of people per square kilometer. The currency of Hong Kong is the Hong Kong Dollar (HKD). As well, the people of Hong Kong are refered to as Chinese/Hong Kong. Hong Kong’s 1,square-kilometer area comprises Hong Kong Island, which lies to the south of the harbour, the Kowloon Peninsula, which forms its northern shores, the New Territories to the north of Kowloon, which stretch all the way to Mainland China, and more than outlying islands, including Lantau Island, where Hong Kong International Airport is located.